A highly infectious disease of unknown origin was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. Epidemiological evidence connected cases of pneumonia to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. After inoculating respiratory samples into Vero E6 and Huh7 cell lines, which are used to study human airway epithelial cells, a novel respiratory virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was discovered. Its genome analysis revealed that it was a novel coronavirus related to SARS-CoV. (SARS-CoV-2). The betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus. The World Health Organization declared a pandemic on March 12, 2020, due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus widespread distribution and the thousands of deaths brought on by COVID-19, a coronavirus disease.
In terms of lost human lives, negative economic effects, and rising poverty, the globe has so far paid a hefty price for this pandemic. We discuss the epidemiology, serological and molecular diagnosis, the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and its capacity to infect human cells, safety concerns, and SARS-potential CoV-2’s to infect human cells in this review. The COVID-19 epidemic’s effects on our way of life, the development of vaccines, the management of the pandemic and containing the virus’ spread using artificial intelligence, the available therapies for combating the disease, and preparation for a potential second wave are then the main topics of discussion.
According to the WHO’s most current epidemiological update, five SARS-CoV-2 VOCs have been discovered since the start of the pandemic as of December 11, 2021:
Alpha (B.1.1.7): The initial variation of the issue was discussed in the UK in late December 2020
Beta (B.1.351): first identified in December 2020 in South Africa
First discovered in Brazil in early January 2021, Gamma(P.1)
In India, Delta (B.1.617.2) was first discovered in December 2020.
Omicron (B.1.1.529): first discovered in November 2021 in South Africa
The primary signs and symptoms are:
• Chills and, occasionally, trembling
• Muscle aches
• A throat ache
• Cough and runny nose
• A loss of flavour or smell
Pneumonia, respiratory failure, cardiac problems, liver issues, septic shock, and even death can result from the virus. A condition known as cytokine release syndrome or a cytokine storm may be the root of many COVID-19 problems. This occurs when an infection prompts your immune system to release an abundance of inflammatory proteins known as cytokines into your bloodstream. Your organs may suffer damage and tissue death. Lung transplants have been required in specific circumstances.
Get immediate medical attention if you or a loved one exhibits any of these serious symptoms:
• Breathing issues or shortness of breath
• pain in the chest
• Can’t fully awaken
• Facial or lip bluishness
Some COVID-19 holders have also reported having strokes.
The coronavirus spreads in what way?
The virus, SARS-CoV-2, primarily travels from person to person. Exhalation causes people to expel respiratory fluids in the form of droplets in a variety of sizes, such as while speaking, singing, exercising, coughing, or sneezing. These droplets spread illness and carry viruses. Small enough to remain suspended in the air for minutes to hours are the tiniest very tiny droplets and aerosol particles that are created when these thin droplets rapidly dry.
Highly infectious within three to six feet of an infectious source, where the amount of these virulent small droplets and particles is highest, there is the greatest risk of transmission. The infection can spread if you consume them or breathe them in. . Even while some virus carriers don’t show any signs of illness, they might nevertheless pass the infection to others.
Although it is less common, you can potentially contract the virus by touching your mouth, nose, or perhaps your eyes after contacting a surface or object that has the virus on it. The majority of viruses can survive for several hours on a surface. According to a study, SARS-CoV-2 can survive for several hours on a variety of surfaces:
4 hours for copper (coins, tea kettles, kitchenware)
Boxes for shipping made of cardboard: up to 24 hours
2 to 3 days Plastic (milk bottles, detergent bottles, bus and subway seats, elevator buttons)
2 to 3 days for stainless steel (refrigerators, cookware, sinks, some water bottles).
Because of this, it’s crucial to often wash or sanitise your hands.
The virus has been detected in certain dogs and cats through testing. A few have manifested symptoms of sickness. Although there is no proof that humans may contract this coronavirus from an animal, it does seem possible for humans to transmit it to animals.
To determine if you are currently infected with the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019, you may undergo COVID-19 diagnostic testing (COVID-19).
These kinds of testing for COVID-19 diagnosis have received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA):
Covid 19 diagnosis
RT-PCR analysis. This COVID-19 test, also known as a molecular test, uses a laboratory procedure called reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to find the virus’ genetic material (RT-PCR). A very short nasal swab or a shorter nasal swab (mid-turbinate swab) can be used to gather a sample (anterior nares swab). A lengthy swab is occasionally inserted by a medical expert into tightness in your throat (oropharyngeal swab). Alternatively, you can spit into a tube to collect a sample of saliva.
The results may be available in minutes if the examination done on-site. If transferred to an outside lab, results may take 1 to 3 days, or longer in places where test processing takes longer. When correctly conducted by a healthcare professional, RT-PCR assays are very accurate however, the quick test may miss some cases.
antigen test. Specific proteins in the virus are found using the COVID-19 assay. There are few antigen tests that can produce results in just a few minutes after a fluid sample using a lengthy nasal swab is collected. Others might be taken to a lab for examination.
When procedures are faithfully followed, a positive antigen test result is regarded as accurate. However, there is a higher possibility of false-negative results, which means it’s possible to have the virus but not be sick. The medical professional might advise an RT-PCR test to confirm a negative antigen test result, depending on the circumstances.
To prevent COVID-19-related severe disease, three COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) have been authorised in the United States. They offer the best defence against the illness.
The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, also known as mRNA vaccines, are advised for use in people six months of age and older, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
• If receiving an mRNA vaccination is not a possibility, people ages 18 and over can receive the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine.
Following the conclusion of extensive study and clinical trials, these recommendations were made. Vaccines for COVID-19 have undergone and are still undergoing rigorous safety monitoring.
Children and teenagers can contract COVID-19 and spread it to others just as easily as adults. They may also develop severe COVID-19 problems. The CDC approved the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines for use in children 6 months of age and older in June 2022, stating that it was safe for younger children under 5 to get the vaccination.
The federal government is providing the vaccine to the American public free of charge.
A way to better health
Two doses of the mRNA vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna, must be administered via syringe (a shot). Depending on the vaccine administered, the injections should be spaced 3–4 weeks apart. To have the best defence against COVID-19, it is crucial to receive both doses of the vaccine. One dosage of the Johnson & Johnson vaccination is administered. In most cases, mRNA vaccinations are advised.
After the initial vaccination series, a booster dose optimises protection against COVID-19. All individuals 12 years of age and older may now receive booster doses following CDC approval. A booster dose is an additional dose of a vaccine administered to a person whose original vaccination series produced a sufficient immune response but whose response may have dwindled over time.