Breast cancer: What Is It?
One type of cancer that begins in the breast is breast cancer. Either the left or right breast could be where it starts.
Uncontrolled division of cells gives rise to cancer.
Although men can also develop breast cancer, breast cancer affects almost exclusively women.
It’s crucial to realize that the majority of breast lumps are benign and not cancerous (malignant). Breast tumors that are not cancerous are abnormal growths that do not spread to the exterior of the breast. While most benign breast lumps are not life-threatening, some of them can raise a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer. It is important to have a medical practitioner examine any breast changes or lumps to determine whether they are benign or malignant (cancer).
The origin of breast cancer
The breast is an organ that sits over the upper ribs and chest muscles. The majority of the structures in the left and right breasts are fatty tissue, ducts, and glands. For feeding babies and infants, women’s breasts produce and secrete milk. Each breast’s size is based on the quantity of fatty tissue present there.
There are several parts to the breast:
The glands that produce breast milk are called lobules. Lobular malignancies are tumors that develop here.
The milk is transported to the nipple by ducts, which are tiny channels that emerge from the lobules. The most typical area for breast cancer to begin is here. Ductal malignancies are cancers that develop here.
The ducts that join together and expand to form bigger ducts at the nipple of the breast allow milk to flow out of the breast. The areola, a slightly thicker, darker skin layer, surrounds the nipple. The nipple is where Paget disease of the breast, a less prevalent form of breast cancer, can begin.
The ducts and lobules are surrounded by fat and connective tissue (stroma), which aids in maintaining their position. The stroma can be the site of the phyllodes tumor, a less frequent kind of breast cancer.
Each breast contains lymphatic and blood arteries as well. A less frequent form of breast cancer called angiosarcoma can begin in the lining of these vessels.
Occasionally, breast cancers develop in tissues other than the breast. Sarcomas and lymphomas are the names of these malignancies, which are not typically thought of as breast cancers.
Spread of breast cancer
When cancer cells enter the blood or lymphatic system and are then transported to other parts of the body, breast cancer can spread.
The lymphatic system is a part of your body’s defense system. It is a network of organs, ducts, and lymph nodes that cooperate to gather and transport clear lymph fluid through the bodily tissues and into the blood. Lymph nodes are tiny, bean-sized glands. Immune system cells are present in the clear lymph fluid that fills the lymph veins, along with waste products and byproducts of tissue production.
To remove lymph fluid from the breast, lymph vessels are used. Cancer cells may infiltrate those lymphatic channels in the case of breast cancer and begin to proliferate in lymph nodes.
The majority of the breast’s lymphatic vessels discharge into:
Nodes of lymph under the arm (axillary lymph nodes)
Lymph nodes close to the breastbone in the chest (internal mammary lymph nodes)
nodes of lymph surrounding the collarbone (supraclavicular [above the collar bone] and infraclavicular [below the collar bone] lymph nodes)
There is a greater likelihood that cancer cells will have metastasized (moved to other places of your body) if they have already migrated to your lymph nodes. Some women without cancer cells in their lymph nodes may later acquire metastases, and not all women with cancer cells in their lymph nodes do so.
What Are the Breast Cancer Risk Factors?
Studies show that a variety of factors work together to raise your risk of acquiring breast cancer. Being a woman and getting older are the two main risk-influencing factors. The risk of breast cancer is highest in women over the age of 50.
A woman still has a chance of getting breast cancer even if she is not aware of any additional risk factors. Having a risk factor does not guarantee that you will acquire the disease, and not all risk factors have the same consequences. Even though many women are at risk, breast cancer seldom affects them. Talk to your doctor about methods to minimize your risk and about screening if you have breast cancer risk factors.
Risk Elements You Cannot Control
• Growing elderly. genetic changes.
• Previous sexual activity.
• Possessing full breasts.
• A history of breast cancer or other non-cancerous breast disorders in the individual.
• family history of breast cancer.
• Radiation therapy that has been used in the past.
• Use of the substance diethylstilbestrol (DES).
Risk Elements You Can Modify
• Being inactive physically. obesity or being overweight after menopause.
• Hormone therapy.
• Previous sexual activity.
• Having a drink.
What Signs Point To Breast Cancer?
Different people will exhibit various signs of breast cancer. Some people have no symptoms or early warning signs at all.
Several warning signs of breast cancer include
- recently noticed breast or underarm asymmetry (armpit).
- breast area enlargement or thickness.
- Bruising or lumps on the breast skin.
- Redness or flaky skin might be found in the breast or nipple region.
- nipple region discomfort or pulling in.
- Breast milk production and bleeding from the breasts.
- Pain can occur in any breast area.
Keep in mind that conditions other than cancer may also present with comparable symptoms.
How precisely is breast cancer found?
Doctors frequently use additional tests to locate or identify breast cancer. An expert or breast surgeon may be recommended for women. This does not necessarily mean that surgery is required or that she has cancer. These medical experts are adept at spotting breast problems.
breast ultrasound. a device that uses sound waves to create sonograms, or images of the breast’s internal organs.
mammogram for diagnosis. If you have a breast problem, such as lumps, or if a portion of your breast seems suspicious on a screening mammogram, your doctor might advise getting a diagnostic mammogram. This particular breast X-ray is more detailed.
Breast MRI: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). a body-scanning method that makes use of both a magnet and a computer. areas inside
- This test entails removing tissue or fluid from the breast for microscopic examination and further testing. Different kinds of biopsies exist (for example, fine-needle aspiration, core biopsy, or open biopsy).
If breast cancer is discovered, additional tests are run to see if the disease has progressed to the breast or other parts of the body. This is how the staging process works. You can find out if cancer has spread to other parts of your body, if it was found in the lymph nodes beneath your arm, or if it only affects your breast.
The Breast Cancer Treatment
There are various modalities to treat breast cancer. This will depend on the type of breast cancer and how far it has spread. Patients with breast cancer usually get a variety of treatments.
Surgery is a procedure in which medical professionals remove malignant tissue.
- utilize particular medications to lessen or get rid of cancer cells. The medications can occasionally be given intravenously and orally.
hormone therapy stops the hormones from reaching the cancer cells, which are necessary for their proliferation.
biological therapy works in conjunction with your body’s immune system to fight cancerous cells or to control the side effects of other cancer treatments.
radiation therapy that uses X-ray-like high-energy beams to eradicate cancer cells.
How Can I Lower My Breast Cancer Chances?
Throughout a lifetime, a variety of variables can affect your chance of developing breast cancer. Even while some things, including becoming older or having a family history, are beyond your control, you can help reduce your risk of breast cancer by taking the following measures:
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Exercise regularly
- Avoid alcohol or drink it in moderation.
Ask your doctor about the dangers and decide if taking oral contraceptives (birth control pills) or hormone replacement therapy external symbol is good for you if you currently use them or have been prescribed them.
If at all feasible, breastfeed your children.
Speak to your doctor about further risk-reducing measures if you have a family history of breast cancer or inherited abnormalities in your BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.
Living a healthy lifestyle will reduce your risk of getting cancer and increase your chances of surviving it if it does.
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